The most frequent in clinical practice are:
– Spondylolitesis due to spondylolysis: It usually appears during the young age.
Its main symptoms are the chronic lumbar pain or radicular irradiated pain due to the involvement of the L5 root in the foramen of conjunction. The predisposing factors are: column morphology (pelvic incidence) and bone stress on the pars interarticularis due to functional demand. They are classified according to the degree of displacement (Meyerding degrees)
– Degenerative spondylolisthesis: it is more frequent in women in segment L4-L5. It is produced by the secondary instability to the joint degenerative changes in L4-L5 and can result in a secondary spinal canal stenosis. Clinically, it is characterized by low back pain accompanied by neuropathic pain irradiated to the lower limbs.
In case the symptoms can not be controlled by physiotherapy, physical exercise, analgesia and infiltrations, surgery could be recommended.
The surgical technique will depend in each case on the type of spondylolitesitis, its degree and the neurological compromise.